Rob Timmings of the Kingston/Robe Health Advisory gives us the lowdown on snakebites.
With summer just around the corner, it is vital to be prepared for snakes and potentially a snake bite. It's better to be informed with facts about snake bites, so you do not hesitate if the time comes.
Did you know?
3000 snakebites are reported annually.
300-500 people are hospitalised
2-3 deaths annually.
The Average time to death is 12 hours.
There are five genus of snakes that will harm us (seriously) - Browns, Blacks, Adders, Tigers and Taipans.
All snake venom is made up of huge proteins (like egg white). When bitten, a snake injects some venom into the meat of your limb (NOT into your blood). This venom can not be absorbed into the blood stream from the bite site.
It travels in a fluid transport system in your body called the lymphatic system (not the blood stream). Now this fluid (lymph) is moved differently to blood.
Your heart pumps blood around, so even when you are lying dead still, your blood still circulates around the body. Lymph fluid is different. It moves around with physical muscle movement like bending your arm, bending knees, wriggling fingers and toes, walking/exercise etc.
Now here is the thing. Lymph fluid becomes blood after these lymph vessels converge to form one of two large vessels (lymphatic trunks)which are connected to veins at the base of the neck.
Back to the snake bite site
When bitten, the venom has been injected into this lymph fluid (which makes up the bulk of the water in your tissues).
The only way that the venom can get into your blood stream is to be moved from the bite site in the lymphatic vessels. The only way to do this is to physically move the limbs that were bitten.
Stay still! Venom can’t move if the victim doesn’t move.
In the 1980s a technique called Pressure immobilisation bandaging was developed to further retard venom movement. It completely stops venom /lymph transport toward the blood stream.
A firm roll bandage is applied directly over the bite site (don’t wash the area).
Technique: Three steps: keep them still!
Step 1 - Apply a bandage over the bite site, to an area about 10cm above and below the bite.
Step 2 - Then using another elastic roller bandage, apply a firm wrap from Fingers/toes all the way to the armpit/groin. The bandage needs to be firm, but not so tight that it causes fingers or toes to turn purple or white. About the tension of a sprain bandage.
Step 3 - Splint the limb so the patient can’t walk or bend the limb.
Do not cut, incise or suck the venom.
Do not EVER use a tourniquet
Don’t remove the shirt or pants - just bandage over the top of clothing. Remember movement (like wriggling out of a shirt or pants) causes venom movement.
DO NOT try to catch, kill or identify the snake!!! This is important.
In hospital we NO LONGER NEED to know the type of snake; it doesn’t change treatment. Our new anti-venom neutralises the venoms of all the five listed snake genus, so it doesn’t matter what snake bit the patient.